The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a new human rights mechanism created by General Assembly Resolution 60/251 on 15 March, 2006. Administered by the Human Rights Council, the UPR is set up to act as a regular review process under the principle that all countries should be treated equally in the assessment of their human rights records. UPR also provides a forum for States to declare what they have done to forward human rights in their country and acts as a place to share best practices regarding the promotion and protection of human rights.
There is universal UN member state participation in the periodic review. There are 47 rotating members of the UPR Working Group who conduct the reviews but all observer states at the Human Rights Council can pose questions and give recommendations during each reviews. Each review is facilitated by a group of three States, or “troikas”, who act as rapporteurs. The first UPR cycle began in 2008 and approximately 48 countries are reviewed each year. Each of the United Nation's 192 Member States will have been reviewed by the end of the 2011. More information about the UPR process and past UPR sessions can be found on the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights website.
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