The human rights record of all 192 Member States of the United Nations is reviewed under the Universal Periodic Review (UPR). The Human Rights Council administers the UPR process, looking at each State every four years. Civil society organizations, including nongovernmental organizations, non-profits, and coalitions, are encouraged to participate in the UPR process through consultations with their governments and by submitting statements outlining issues of concern.
Guide to International Human Rights Mechanisms
The UN and regional human rights bodies engage in a variety of activites to protect, monitor, and advance human rights worldwide. International tribunals hold human rights violators accountable. UN agencies work directly to improve human rights. Some UN and regional treaty bodies take complaints from individuals who allege human rights violations.
International and regional treaty bodies monitor and report on human rights conditions. Parties to international and regional human rights treaties are required to submit regular reports detailing their compliance. In some cases a human rights body independently undertakes missions to monitor human rights conditions in a particular country.
The international human rights system depends on active participation of civil society - NGOs, nonprofits, the academic community, and community activists. By providing credible examples of human rights violations, on-the-ground activists and advocates draw attention to systemic problems and help take part in ending human rights violations.
UN Charter-Based Mechanisms
UN Treaty-Based Mechanisms
Regional Human Rights Bodies
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